Dating of domestic china ceramics
Following the arrival of the railways in 1873, production and distribution opened up and the region soon had around 50 producers.
The Massier family, a dynasty of potters dating back to before the French Revolution played a key role in the expansion of pottery innovation in Vallauris.
Porcelain, on a Western definition, is "a collective term comprising all ceramic ware that is white and translucent, no matter what ingredients are used to make it or to what use it is put." so doing without stoneware, which in Chinese tradition is mostly grouped with porcelain.
Many of the most important kiln workshops were owned by or reserved for the Emperor, and large quantities of ceramics were exported as diplomatic gifts or for trade from an early date.The “eight Buddhist emblems” appear fairly frequently, as do the “eight precious things” and a collection of instruments and implements used in the arts and known as the “hundred antiques.” The “lions of Buddha” (often miscalled dogs) are frequently represented, as is the , which is a grotesque mask of uncertain origin, also appears on early bronzes and on later pottery and porcelain.Decorations based on Chinese literary sources are usually extremely difficult to trace to their origin.Chinese ceramics range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court and for export.
Porcelain is so identified with China that it is still called "china" in everyday English usage.Items without a mark were either domestic American production, non-prestige imported production, or imported production that wasn't specifically produced for the American market.Lack of mark does NOT equate to lack of value or quality.Most of the Chinese marks give the name of the dynasty and that of the emperor; however, many of them have been used so inconsequentially that, unless the period can also be assigned with reasonable certainty by other means, it is better to disregard them.