Dating methods for quaternary deposits thermal illumination dating of pottery
Loess comes from the German Löss or Löß, and ultimately from Alemannic lösch meaning loose as named by peasants and masons along the Rhine Valley.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: pollen analysis CATEGORY: related field; technique DEFINITION: The study of fossil and living spores (of lichens and mosses) and pollen (of flowering plants); the technique through which the fossil pollen grains and spores from archaeological sites are studied.
The outer skin (exine) of these grains is remarkably resistant to decay, and on wet ground or on a buried surface, it will be preserved, locked in the humus content.
The examination of their production, dispersal, and applications is an aid to the reconstruction of past vegetation and climates and developing relative chronologies.
Each kind of flowering plant produces pollen that is unique and pollen grains have tough coverings that can last a long time.
Calthemites which occur on concrete structures, are created by completely different chemistry to speleothems.
*A Stalactite *B Soda straws *C Stalagmites *D Coned stalagmite *E Stalagnate or column *F Drapery *G Drapery *H Helictites *I Moonmilk *J Sinter pool, rimstone *K Calcite crystals *L Sinter terrace *M Karst *N Body of water *O Shield *P Cave clouds *Q Cave pearls *R Tower cones *S Shelfstones *T Baldacchino canopy *U Bottlebrush stalactite *V Conulite *W Flowstone *X Trays *Y Calcite rafts *Z Cave popcorn or coralloids *AA Frostworks *AB Flowstone *AC Splattermite *AD Speleoseismites *AE Boxworks *AF Oriented stalactite *AG collapsed rubble Speleothems take various forms, depending on whether the water drips, seeps, condenses, flows, or ponds.These are called "paha ridges" in America and "greda ridges" in Europe.The form of these loess dunes has been explained by a combination of wind and tundra conditions.The definition of "speleothem" in most publications, specifically excludes secondary mineral deposits in mines, tunnels and on man-made structures.